Biological origin

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Animal attack

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Epidemic (animal)

Mass occurrence – in large numbers – of a contagious animal disease within a relatively short time. In some cases, humans are also directly threatened, but basically direct and indirect economic losses are caused in the region concerned.

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Epidemic (human)

Mass occurrence – in large numbers – of a contagious disease within a relatively short time. In general, a contagious disease occasioned by the same pathogen, arising from a single source of infection, in the same area and at the same time.

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Epidemic hazard

The risk of the massive spread of the infection. Potentially large-scale infection or mass disease.

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Epidemic (plant)

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Infection hazard

Threat of infection of individuals.

Critical infrastructure

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Collapse of public administration

Public administration means the collectivity of organizations which perform public duties and implement legal regulations in the name of the state or the municipality, by the exercise of official authority. The collapse of public administration means the massive failure – affecting large areas – of the staffing, organizational and operational conditions thereof, when the reduction of their availability or services negatively affects the life of a given circle of users as well as their life and operating conditions.

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Food supply distruption

Food supply means the food supply chain ranging from producers to consumers, including organizations, facilities, and networks for providing food supply to the population within a country, the destruction of which or the reduction of their availability or services will negatively affect the life of a given circle of users.

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Failure of landline ant internet networks

Failure or the reduction of the availability of water, gas, electricity supply, central heating or internet services affecting an administrative unit to such a degree which negatively affects the life of a given circle of users as well as their life and operating conditions.

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Healthcare distruption

Healthcare services mean the organizations, facilities, and networks to provide healthcare services to the population, the destruction of which or the reduction of their availability or services will negatively affect the life of a given circle of users.

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Potable water supply distruption

Water supply means the supply chain ranging from the potable water source (and its protection), the cleaning facility, through the conduits to the consumer and back through the sewer network to the treatment plant, which constitutes the collectivity of organizations, facilities and networks the destruction of which or the reduction of their availability or services will negatively affect the life of a given circle of users.

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Failure of telecommunications

The infrastructure and the system operating it, providing information to the society and ensuring familiarization with the rules of conduct in a disaster situation as well as feedback being important for public administration, the destruction of which or the reduction of their availability or services will negatively affect the life of a given circle of users.

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Traffic distruption

Traffic is an infrastructure system serving for the transport of people and goods, including the collectivity of institutions that ensure the operability of such infrastructure, the destruction of which or the reduction of their availability or services will negatively affect the life of a given circle of users.

Catastrophic changes in the operation of social systems

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CBNR

Use of radiological, biological, and chemical substances (weapons).

Chemical weapons – chemicals detrimental to the health of enemy soldiers, causing permanent injuries or death, prepared for military use.

Biological weapons – viruses, bacteria or other organisms, or organic compounds produced organically and particularly active biologically.

Radiological weapon – attack by radiation. Destruction of the enemy’s living space, potable water and food sources by radiation.

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Local shooting conflicts

Armed actions restricted to a small area within a country or to some groups of the population, ensuing from dissatisfaction.

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Serial demonstrations, mass movements

Rallies and demonstrations arising from societal – economic, social, political, religious, ethnic – dissatisfaction, endangering the operation of the elements of the social structure – the economic system, the legal system, the political system and culture.

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Serial strikes

Mass stoppage of employees hindering the operation of a given society. E.g. community transport, energy or food supply, healthcare services, or communications systems become paralyzed.

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Terrorism

A crime against public security intending to force the state by violence against people, by weapons or by causing public danger to do something, to refrain from doing something or to tolerate something, which intimidates the population and wants to change the constitutional, societal or economic order of the state.

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War

The purpose of a war is to enforce by violence the interests of the opposing parties by using military assets. (Purposes include: acquisition / retention of lands / economic resources; dissemination of religious and / or political ideologies.)

Ecological disaster

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Air pollution

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Escape of biological hazards

The release of biological hazards is a rapid and drastic change associated with direct human activities (intentionally or by accident), as a consequence of which the biological substance released endangers a great number of the given populations and combinations of living creatures in extensive areas, thereby considerably endangering / damaging people’s lives, health, properties, the natural environment, and natural assets.

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Ecological hazard

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Environment pollution

Environment pollution is a rapid and drastic change associated with direct human activities, as a consequence of which the substance released endangers a great number of the given populations and combinations of living creatures in extensive areas, thereby considerably endangering / damaging people’s lives, health, properties, the natural environment, and natural assets.

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Proliferation of animal pests

Mass proliferation of animal parasites or plant pests within the populations of living creatures, resulting in a drastic deterioration of the normal balance of the combinations of living creatures, thereby considerably endangering / damaging people’s lives, health, properties, the natural environment, and natural assets.

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Proliferation of plant pests

Mass proliferation of animal parasites or plant pests within the populations of living creatures, resulting in a drastic deterioration of the normal balance of the combinations of living creatures, thereby considerably endangering / damaging people’s lives, health, properties, the natural environment, and natural assets.

Explosion

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Industrial explosion

An explosion in the industry where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths. Explosions broken down by branches of industry include chemical industry, construction industry, defense (military) industry, energy industry, food industry, processing industry, and mining industry explosions.

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Surroundings explosion

An explosion in other than the industry where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths.

Fire

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Fire in built environment

A fire incident in a built environment where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths, and occurred in establishments prominent from the viewpoint of critical infrastructure, of mass stay, bearing unique and irrecoverable cultural values, or large facilities processing or storing hazardous substances.

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Outdoor fire

A fire incident occurring outdoors where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths, and by reason of the size and extension of a forest fire / peat fire (500 to 1,000 hectares or over) it poses a complex threat to the health of the population, traffic conditions, and material assets through the presence of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, flue dust and all floating dust.

Geological

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Avalanche

An avalanche (snowslide) is a mass of snow falling from a hillside due to a loss of balance. An avalanche hazard is notified in five degrees where 54% of accidents occur at degree 3:

Degree 3 (medium - yellow) - The snow cover may slide at small loads on previously notified slopes.

Degree 4 (high - orange) - Snowslides are probable even at light loads at a number of slopes.

Degree 5 (very high - red) - There is a general avalanche hazard.

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Earthquake

Earthquake, which strength is according to the Richter scale.

M5 - Quake is considered to be moderate where damage is already occurring.

M6 - Severe quake with fatalities.

M7 - Very large earthquake, serious damage, many deaths.

M8 - Huge earthquake, near total destruction. (Very rare)

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Landslide

A landslide is a type of mass movements, where the volume of the flowing mass – together with the alluvial deposit taken up from the watercourse – may reach a density of 2,000 kg/m3 and a velocity of 14 m/s (50 km/h). The pressure thereof is at least forty times of the pressure of the expected rate of flow. Soil flows are streams slower than mud flows, flowing downwards, and consisting of viscous saturated fine-grain substances, the typical velocity of which is 0.17 to 20 km/h.

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Mudslide

A mudslide is a lethal natural phenomenon which can reach a velocity of as much as 40-50 km/h. It can be formed in the course of a volcanic eruption, where the lava melts in the snow and in the ice caps or in the course of heavy rains. The falling water is mixed with volcanic ash, soil, and debris.

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Protrusion

A sudden change in the processes bringing about modifications in the deep structure of the earth’s crust, as a consequence of which the surface of the earth’s crust quickly changes as a result of the dynamic imbalance of the proportion of materials generated and transformed.

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Soil erosion

The erosion of soil triggered by rainwater or irrigation. In the course of soil erosion, the soil material is washed away, the nutrient and humus content of the soil is reduced, the soil structure is deteriorated, thereby soil fertility is significantly decreased. In extreme cases, the soil may be completely destroyed, leaving the infertile base rock behind on the surface.

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Stone fall

Stone pieces are broken off by fragmentation and crumbling along layer sheets or cracks, but this can also be initiated by the splitting effect of frost, or by water and wind as well.

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Volcanic eruption

A volcanic eruption is the surfacing and movement, through the cracks of the earth’s surface, of products originating from the depth, such as magma, the burning molten rock of the asthenosphere.

Hydrological

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Dam burst

Due to fluid pressure as a consequence of heavy rains, snow melting or earth movements, the dam will lose its retaining capacity, will break through and the water / slurry will rush down through the orifice thus generated, thereby – unexpectedly or unavoidably – having a sudden and large negative impact on the life conditions of large groups of human people or other living creatures for shorter or longer periods of time.

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Flash flood

It can be triggered by sudden heavy rains on hillside and mountainous districts, snow melting in the hills or an unexpected break of a dam. The largest danger of a sudden flood is its incalculability, representing an unexpected or unavoidable incident which has a sudden and large negative impact on the life conditions of large groups of human people or other living creatures for shorter or longer periods of time.

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Flood

The water level of a river rises due to snow melting, ice jam pack or heavy rains, emerging from its channel and inundating the area, causing an unexpected or unavoidable incident having a large negative impact on the life conditions of large groups of human people or other living creatures for shorter or longer periods of time. Urban areas, industrial and other facilities, croplands may be inundated; damage may be incurred in water, gas, electricity and telecommunications equipment; hazards of infections and epidemics may occur.

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Inland water

Caused by permanent rainfall / sudden snow melting in plane areas with properly closing lower layers. They cannot leak naturally, as the free soil pores of the soil in the upper layer of the soil are saturated with water. This is an incident occurring mostly calculably, affecting the life conditions of large groups of human people or other living creatures for shorter or longer periods of time. If inland waters are present for a prolonged period of time, they will damage agriculture by keeping plant roots in a watery environment permanently.

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Tsunami

A tsunami is one of the most devastating natural disasters which may be triggered by an earthquake, landslide or meteor impact. At the coastline, it can reach a height of 15 to 30 meters within 10 to 15 minutes, and it has a destructive impact to devastate everything, having a sudden and large negative impact on the life conditions of those living in the coastal region.

Industrial

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Accidents in hazardous plants

Industrial and agricultural facilities where hazardous substances are present in quantities reaching the lower and upper threshold levels specified by substance type, and / or hazardous activities involving them, the uncontrollability of which may threat and / or injure human health, the environment, life and property security in masses. This includes the facilities for the transportation of hazardous substances and hazardous waste through conduits out of operation, transport conduits, pump, compressor and distribution stations, and also where at least 1,000 kg of chlorine or ammonia are present – unless classified as plants dealing with hazardous substances. In case of an accident, the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths, and the process of salvage / neutralization is prolonged and may count on considerable public interest.

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Breakdown of energy supply systems

An energy system is a collectivity (aggregation) of energy system components / power plants, base network and base network substations, international cooperation network, main distribution network, distribution network/united by some form of interaction or interdependence. A serious accident / fire incident at decisive power plants, in the base network and at base network substations, where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths, and / or the permanent outage of several thousand consumers is caused or must be taken into account. A series of failures of the main distribution network, the distribution network, and the consumer distribution network (e.g. due to weather impact), causing the permanent outage of several thousands of consumers.

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Collapse of built environment

An incident when the structure of the facility is damaged or collapses as a result of an internal cause (planning, design or construction error, weakness or fatigue of materials) and/or due to an external force (explosion, fire, natural forces).

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Functional disorders of technologies

Failures, wear and tear of materials, breakage, collapse, release of substances, etc. in industrial and agricultural technology systems, where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths.

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Natural gas and crude oil outbursts

A technology failure on oil and gas extraction consequent upon which crude oil and natural gas are released uncontrollably at high pressure from the earth, where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths, and significant environment pollution (ecological disaster) is generated, and the process of neutralization is prolonged and may count on considerable public interest.

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Mining accidents

Accidents in deep working or surface mines where the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths, and the process of salvage is prolonged and may count on considerable public interest.

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Release of toxic chemicals

Industrial, agricultural and other facilities wherefrom such a quantity of toxic chemicals were released to the air, to the soil, to living waters, that the damage caused is extremely significant, possibly coupled with mass human injuries or deaths, and the process of salvage / neutralization is prolonged and may count on considerable public interest.

Nuclear accidents

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Isotope accident

When radioactive isotopes are released into the environment, as a consequence of which such a degree of radioactivity may be released into the environment which results in considerable consequences to humans.

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Nuclear power plant accident

Accidents occurred are classified into breakdowns and accidents on the basis of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES); the latter include incidents with an external risk. The warning level is 250 nSv/h, and the alert level is 500 nSv/h.

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Nuclear weapon accident

Any nuclear or radioactive accident with nuclear arms or military vehicles driven by nuclear power plants (ships, submarines), consequent upon which radioactivity is released into the environment, which results in considerable consequences to humans, the environment, or the infrastructure. The warning level is 250 nSv/h, and the alert level is 500 nSv/h.

Other

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Climate change

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Other hazmat incident

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Other event

Other event that cannot be categorized.

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Space incident

Mass disaster of transport / traffic

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Airplane accident

Air accidents mean accidents caused in air, or caused by or to aircrafts.

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Public road accident

Land accident mean accidents involving or related to land vehicles of any type, including road accidents. Traffic collisions often result in injury, disability, death, and property damage as well as financial costs to both society and the individuals involved.

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Railway accident

A type of accident involving trains or other railway or tramway vehicles.

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Water accident

Water accidents mean accidents caused in water, or caused by or to watercrafts.

Weather

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Cyclone

Atmospheric phenomena (a cloud vortex) of one hundred kilometers in general, where the air pressure is the lowest in the middle and increases from the inside towards the outside. A tropical cyclone is termed as a typhoon in the western part of the Pacific Ocean, and as a hurricane in the Caribbean and in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean. It is simply termed as a cyclone in the Indian Ocean and around Australia. Winds may reach speeds of as much as 240–350 km/h, which may lead to massive destruction.

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Drought

It designates a period when there is considerably less precipitation than average, or the evaporation loss of the soil significantly increases due to high temperatures. A draught prolonged for several months may delay plant growth and the food supply capability of the given area. In case of a severe drought, food and water shortage will follow.

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Damage by snow and ice

In the event that snow does not melt when the positive temperature range is reached, it becomes watery and easy to stick, easily adhering to branches and conduits. Snow falling on conduits gets frozen due to the evaporation caused by the wind and constitutes a strong ice frame, helping further snow adhesion and accumulation. In the event that this phenomenon occurs in extensive areas, it will lead to the mass rupture of electricity conduits and the breakage of supporting pillars, which will lead to outages in the electricity supply. And the snow freezing to trees causes the breakage of branches and mass tree falls. This causes stoppages in the built environment, on public roads and railway traffic, and may lead to airport closures.

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Dust storm

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Extreme cold

Prolonged persistence of extremely cold temperature values. It can bring onhealth emergencies in susceptible people, such as thosewithout shelter or who are stranded, or who live in a homethat is poorly insulated or without heat.

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Extreme rainfall

A rainstorm means the fall of precipitation exceeding 25 to 30 mm locally, within a short time (generally within 30 to 60 minutes, but up to 2 to 3 hours).

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Freezing rain

A type of precipitation in a mixed state, consisting of over-cooled drops of water and snow crystals, which immediately freezes when reaching the ground and a hard ice cover is generated from ice-cold fluid drops. It can result in the consequences described in respect of snow and ice damage.

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Hail

A form of solid precipitation produced in a thunderstorm as it travels through the extremely cold aloft by air with strong upward motion, then freezes and falls to the ground.

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Heat wave

Prolonged persistence of exceptionally high temperature values. Such weather phenomena may be characterized by low humidity, which may exacerbate drought, or high humidity, which may exacerbate the health effects of heat-related stress, which include heat exhaustion, dehydration, and heatstroke.

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Lightning

A lightning is a natural atmospheric electric discharge of high energy. In general, its current intensity is 20,000 to 30,000 amperes, but in exceptional cases it may exceed as much as 300,000 amperes. It may cause fires in buildings and lethal electric shocks. It can be considered as a disaster if the size of the building fire, the damage caused or the number of casualties exceed the relevant description.

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Persistent snowfall

The weight of a large quantity of snow can break the roof structure of buildings and the branches of trees by its burden. Large quantities of suddenly falling powdery snow, coupled with windstorms, will result in snow drift, which may paralyze transport. In the event that these two phenomena occur in a large area, they will greatly and suddenly negatively impact the life conditions of large groups of people and animals for a long period of time, characterized by traffic emergency situations, difficulties of supply, and electricity supply outages.

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Persistent thick fog

The vapor in air condenses into tiny water droplets as a result of cold temperature, which are suspended in the air above the ground. Fog significantly reduces visibility, sometimes to only a few meters.

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Storm

Any wind with a speed of at least 32 m/s, that is, min. 115 km/h, which is given a name in the meteorological practice, which greatly and suddenly negatively impacts the life conditions of large groups of people or other living creatures for a shorter or longer time.

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Tornado

A tornado is a rapidly rotating cloud vortex in which the air pressure is lowest in the middle and rises from the inside to the outside. It starts from a storm cloud and comes in contact with the Earth’s surface. Tornadoes have an average width of 400 to 500 meters and exist for only a few minutes. Wind speeds in the wildest tornadoes can exceed 480 km/h.